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Back to Nutrients in Milk Products

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is essential for overall health and may also play a key role in the prevention of certain types of cancer, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes.

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  • Vitamin D and Health

    The evidence to date, largely from systematic reviews, indicates that higher levels of serum 25(OH)D may significantly reduce the risk of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, and some cancers, such as breast and colon cancer. Research also indicates that increased...

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  • Functions of Vitamin D

    The function of vitamin D that is most clearly understood is its role in calcium metabolism.1 However, there is evidence for emerging roles that have implications for health and prevention of various diseases. When blood levels of calcium fall, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released to...

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  • Vitamin D Status

    Vitamin D status is measured using serum 25(OH)D levels. This reflects vitamin D derived from food or endogenous synthesis.1 Vitamin D deficiency is defined as a serum 25(OH) level < 37.5 nmol/l in adults or < 27.5 nmol/l in infants and children.1 The suggested target for optimal level of...

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  • Advantages of Vitamin D3 over Vitamin D2

    Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is a form of vitamin D of animal origin that is created from exposure to the sun, whereas ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) is of plant origin.

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  • Vitamin D and Bone Health

    It is well known that vitamin D influences the development and maintenance of bone mass and reduces the risk of osteoporosis. Furthermore, it is also thought to improve lower limb neuromuscular function.

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  • Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    A systematic review of the evidence performed in 2009 for the Institute of Medicine by the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center in preparation for revisions to the Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin D and calcium concluded the following regarding vitamin D and cardiovascular disease:1...

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  • Vitamin D, Hypertension and Blood Pressure

    The Evidence A systematic review of the evidence conducted in 2009 for the Institute of Medicine by the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center in preparation for revisions to the Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin D and calcium concluded the following regarding vitamin D and...

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  • Vitamin D and Cancer

    In 2009, a major systematic review of the evidence concluded the following regarding vitamin D and cancer:1 Cancer from all causes Two randomized controlled trials and one analysis of the NHANES database (two publications) evaluated this association; Both randomized controlled trials were...

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  • Vitamin D and Body Weight

    A systematic review of the evidence performed in 2009 for the Institute of Medicine by the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center in preparation for revisions to the Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin D and calcium concluded the following regarding vitamin D and body weight:1 No studies...

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  • Vitamin D and Growth

    A systematic review of the evidence conducted in 2009 for the Institute of Medicine by the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center in preparation for revisions to the Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin D and calcium concluded the following regarding vitamin D and growth:1 Six randomized...

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What's New

The DASH Diet: What It Is and What the Research Says

Numerous studies have confirmed the beneficial role of the DASH dietary pattern on blood pressure, and various DASH-style diets have also been examined.

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Bone Health: Studies in Adults and the Elderly

A 2015 meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials (n = 1,533) by Tai et al. examined whether increasing calcium from dietary sources affects bone mineral density. A 2013 meta-analysis of...

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Bone Health: Studies in Children and Adolescents

There is consistent evidence that milk and milk products play an important role in the development of strong and healthy bones in children and adolescents and in helping them achieve peak bone mass.

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Milk Products and Bone Health: Potential Mechanisms

Milk products contain many nutrients, such as calcium, vitamin D, protein and phosphorus, which play a key role in the formation and maintenance of optimal bone health.

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Milk Products and Breast Cancer

According to the 2010 report by the World Cancer Research Fund International, the authority on diet and cancer, no conclusions can be drawn between milk products and breast cancer due to limited...

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Milk Products and Bladder Cancer

Current evidence from the scientific literature, including meta-analyses and cohort studies, suggests that milk and milk products may reduce the risk of bladder cancer.

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