Close Send this page to a friend

Your link and message have been sent!

Close Send this page to a friend
* required
Oops! You forgot to fill in some required information.
Loading...

Back to Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular Disease and Milk Products: Summary of Evidence

Milk products, regardless of their fat content, do not appear to increase cardiovascular risk. In fact, a growing body of evidence indicates that milk products are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.

Highlights

  • Despite containing saturated fat, milk products appear to have a protective effect on cardiovascular health;
  • High-fat milk products seem to be as beneficial as low-fat milk products;
  • Fermented milk products, including yogurt and cheese, have a protective cardiovascular effect;
  • A number of specific milk components have been associated with an improvement in cardiovascular disease risk factors, but the complex matrix of dairy foods may be just as important.

The bad press surrounding saturated fat has often harmed the reputation of milk products. However, recent scientific evidence indicates that the saturated fat found in milk products may not be detrimental to health. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence to suggest that milk product consumption may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

In addition, there are numerous milk components that may be related to the prevention or management of cardiovascular risk factors, including vitamin D, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, protein and bioactive peptides, and dairy fatty acids.

The Evidence

A 2015 meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies examined the association between dairy consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Specific analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between low-fat dairy, high-fat dairy, yogurt, cheese and butter and the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Twenty-two studies were included, with over 900,000 participants and follow-ups ranging from 8 to 26 years.1

  • Dairy consumption was associated with a 12% and 13% reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, respectively;
  • There was no association between dairy consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease;
  • Low-fat dairy was associated with a 7% lower risk of stroke;
  • Cheese was associated with a 9% and 6% reduced risk of stroke and coronary heart disease, respectively;
  • There was no association between butter and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.

Chowdhury et al. conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the association between different types of fatty acids with respect to coronary outcomes. Among others, they examined circulating saturated fatty acids that are biomarkers of dairy intake and found the following:2

  • Margaric acid (17:0) was associated with a 23% risk reduction in coronary outcomes;
  • Myristic (14:0) and pentadecanoic (15:0) acids were not associated with coronary outcomes;
  • The findings suggest that saturated fatty acids in dairy products do not have deleterious effects on cardiovascular health

Hu et al. conducted a dose-response meta-analysis evaluating the association between different dairy foods and stroke. The analysis comprised 15 prospective cohort studies and 764,635 participants.3

  • Total dairy consumption was associated with a stroke risk reduction of 12%;
  • Low-fat dairy, fermented milk and cheese were associated with a decreased risk of stroke by 9%, 20% and 6%, respectively;
  • High-fat dairy, non-fermented milk, butter and cream were not associated with stroke risk;
  • Associations appeared stronger for the risk reduction of stroke mortality, as compared to incidence.

In another meta-analysis, the association between food sources of saturated fat and cardiovascular mortality was examined. With respect to dairy foods, the authors observed that total dairy, milk and cheese consumption were not associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality.4

Furthermore, a systematic review of observational studies that were published between 2009 and 2013 concluded that the consumption of dairy products, including full-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, does not contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Instead, the evidence indicated that they might have a protective cardiovascular effect.5

Evidence from national surveys also suggests that dairy consumption may help protect against cardiovascular disease. For instance, the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) survey, which is a nationwide study, found the following:6

  • Higher intakes of whole-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health;
  • No association was observed between dairy desserts, ice cream and butter and cardiovascular health;
  • Having at least 3 servings of dairy products per day was associated with the greatest cardiovascular health score.

In a nationally representative cohort of 3,810 Taiwanese adults, the association between dairy consumption and cardiovascular mortality was examined. The authors observed a linear relationship between higher intakes of dairy products (>7 times weekly) and reduced cardiovascular mortality. The results also indicated a protective effect on stroke mortality.7

Potential Mechanisms

The consumption of dairy products has been inversely associated with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, obesity, diabetes and inflammation.

The mechanistic pathways underlying the protective cardiovascular effects of dairy products remain to be elucidated. Several nutrients found in dairy products may be beneficial to cardiovascular health (summarized in the table below). Nonetheless, there is evidence to suggest that the complex matrix of dairy foods, rather than individual milk components, may be as important to improving cardiovascular health.5

Milk component Potential mechanistic action
Vitamin D
  • Improvement of blood lipid profile
  • Increase in insulin sensitivity
  • Blood pressure control via the regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Calcium
  • Decrease in vascular resistance and blood pressure
  • Improvement of blood lipid profile
  • Inhibition of fat absorption by binding with fatty acids to form insoluble soaps
Potassium
  • Blood pressure reduction
Magnesium
  • Blood pressure control
Phosphorus
  • Blood pressure management
Protein and bioactive peptides
  • Increase in satiety levels
  • Improvement of blood lipid profile
  • Reduction in blood pressure through the inhibition of the angiotensin-1 converting enzyme
Dairy fatty acids, e.g., conjugated linoleic acid
  • Weight management via the inhibition of adipogenesis and the regulation of lipogenesis
  • Improvement of blood lipid profile
  • Increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance
  • Anti-inflammatory effect

Conclusion

More studies are needed to fully elucidate the relationship between different subtypes of milk products and subtypes of cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke.

Milk products are complex foods containing many key nutrients. Additional mechanistic studies are needed to fully understand how these components or the dairy food matrix may help reduce cardiovascular risk.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease , saturated fat , coronary heart disease , stroke , bioactive peptides , conjugated linoleic acid


  • Educational Material Educational Material Educational Material
    Educational Material

    Need educational resources for your practice? Download copies online, or order print versions free of charge.

    Make a request
  • /newsletter
    NutriNews®

    Every month, articles of interest are featured in our NutriNews Bulletin. Sign up today to stay up to date on the latest scientific evidence and research.

    Sign up